Scoliosis & Kyphosis

Scoliosis causes the spine to curve abnormally on the coronal plane, meaning it twists sideways. Kyphosis causes the spine to curve abnormally on the sagittal plane, meaning it twists forward or backward, giving the back a rounded or hunched appearance.

Kyphoscoliosis is an abnormal curve of the spine on two planes: the coronal plane, or side to side, and the sagittal plane, or back to front. It’s a combined spinal abnormality of two other conditions: kyphosis and scoliosis.


Adult Deformity Correction

Adult spinal deformity is a common disorder with an increasing clinical and societal impact based on the aging demographic throughout the world. Adult spinal deformity in the adult population has a significant and measurable impact on health-related quality of life. A significant proportion of this affected populace will require treatment in some form or another. In general, the first-line of treatment is non-operative, but a subset will require operative intervention.

Cervical Spine Surgery

Cervical spine surgery may be indicated for a variety of spinal neck problems. Generally, surgery may be performed for degenerative disorders, trauma or instability. These conditions may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerves coming from the spine.

The cervical spine can either be approached from the front (anterior approach) or from the back (posterior approach). In general, where possible, most surgeons favor an anterior approach for most conditions.

Spinal Tumor Reconstruction

Not all spinal tumors require immediate surgical treatment. Sometimes the tumor is observed over time for change. This is a common approach in small benign (non-cancerous) tumors. Larger benign tumors, certain types of spine cancer (malignant), and progressive tumors may require surgical intervention.

Spine surgery may be recommended to remove a benign or malignant tumor, reduce its size, and/or relieve persistent back or neck pain, balance problems, difficulty walking, and bowel or bladder dysfunction.


Spondylolisthesis is a spinal condition that causes lower back pain. It occurs when one of your vertebrae, the bones of your spine, slips out of place onto the vertebra below it. Most of the time, nonsurgical treatment can relieve your symptoms. If you have severe spondylolisthesis, surgery is successful in most cases.

The word spondylolisthesis (pronounced spohn-di-low-less-THEE-sis) comes from the Greek words spondylos, which means “spine” or “vertebra,” and listhesis, which means “slipping, sliding or movement.”

Metastatic Spine

Spinal metastases are the most common tumors of the spine. These are more commonly found as bone metastasis and may present with symptoms of spinal canal invasion and cord compression. A defining feature of these lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the sparing of inter-vertebral disc space. The following activity emphasizes the essential knowledge necessary for interprofessional team members to have while treating patients with spinal metastasis. This activity reviews the etiology, presentation, evaluation, and management of spinal metastatic disease, and the role of the inter-professional team in evaluating, diagnosing, and managing the condition.

Spinal Tuberculosis (TB) & Infection

Spinal Tuberculosis, also known as Pott’s Disease, is a spinal infection caused by tuberculosis that can lead to osteomyelitis, kyphotic deformity, and spinal mechanical instability

Diagnosis is made with a CT-guided biopsy sent for acid-fast bacilli.
Treatment is usually bracing and anti-tuberculosis antibiotics in the absence of neurological defects or mechanical instability. Surgical management is indicated in the presence of neurological deficits, progressive kyphosis, and/or mechanical instability. 

Minimally Invasive Spine

Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) is an alternative to traditional open surgical procedures performed to treat different spinal disorders, such as degenerative disc disease, herniated disc, scoliosis, and spinal stenosis. Spine surgery performed minimally invasively offers many potential benefits, such as small incisions, less cutting through soft tissues (eg, ligaments, muscles), outpatient options, less post-operative pain, and faster recovery.

Minimally invasive spine surgery may involve percutaneous (through the skin) or mini-open (small incision) procedures.

Spine Injections

Spinal injections are used in two ways. First, they can be performed to diagnose the source of back, leg, neck, or arm pain (diagnostic). Second, spinal injections can be used as a treatment to relieve pain (therapeutic).

Most spinal injections are performed as one part of a more comprehensive treatment program. Simultaneous treatment nearly always includes an exercise program to improve or maintain spinal mobility (stretching exercises) and stability (strengthening exercises).